On the brink of a balance-of-payments and sovereign debt crisis

C3

SENSITIVE RISK for entreprise

  • Economic risk

  • Business environment risk

  • Political risk

  • Commercial risk

  • Financing risk

  • Economic risk

  • Business environment risk

  • Political risk

  • Commercial risk

  • Financing risk

Updated in November 2022.  

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GDP USD 404.14 bn (World Ranking 33, World Bank 2021)
Population 104,26 mn (World Ranking 14, World Bank 2021)
Form of state Presidential Republic
Head of state Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (President)
Next elections 2024, presidential
  • Large domestic market (104mn population) and a strategic position between Middle Eastern and African markets
  • Relatively well-diversified economy – sources of foreign exchange generation include oil and gas, tourism, Suez Canal revenues, workers’ remittances and a manufacturing base
  • Generally good international relations, including the GCC countries and international financial institutions
  • The difficult and protracted political transition has slowed economic reforms and performance
  • Poverty and lack of job prospects, the two underlying reasons behind social discontent and pressures for regime change, have not been tackled effectively
  • Strong dependence on tourism, Suez Canal revenues and remittances create external liquidity tensions during global downturns
  • High risks of public debt distress and balance-of-payments crisis
  • Weak business environment

Trade structure by destination/origin

(% of total, 2021)

Exports Rank Imports
United States 6.9%
1
17.5% China
Saudi Arabia 6.8%
2
9.4% Saudi Arabia
India 6.6%
3
6.7% United States
Italy 6.1%
4
5.1% Germany
Türkiye 6.1%
5
4.7% Türkiye

Trade structure by product

(% of total, 2021)

Exports Rank Imports
Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials 21.0%
1
9.9% Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials
Vegetables and fruits 8.4%
2
6.6% Road vehicles
Gas, natural and manufactured 8.3%
3
6.2% Cereals and cereal preparations
Fertilizers other than group 272 5.4%
4
4.7% Medicinal and pharmaceutical products
Articles of apparel & clothing accessories 4.8%
5
4.1% Plastics in primary forms
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