D4

HIGH RISK for enterprise

  • Economic risk

  • Business environment risk

  • Political risk

  • Commercial risk

  • Financing risk

  • Economic risk

  • Business environment risk

  • Political risk

  • Commercial risk

  • Financing risk

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GDP USD155.58bn (World ranking 54, World Bank 2020)
Population 44.35mn (World ranking 33, World Bank 2020)
Form of state Republic
Head of government Volodymyr ZELENSKY (President)
Next elections 2024, presidential and legislative
  • Fertile black soil
  • Willingness of International Financial Institutions and bilateral donors to support Ukraine financially
  • Severe conflicts with separatists in east Ukraine ...
  • ... and with Russia (which supports the separatists)
  • History of political instability and government inefficiency; weak constitutional framework
  • High economic dependence on Russia (major trading partner, in particular natural gas supplier)
  • Poor economic policy track record
  • Exchange rate vulnerability
  • Modest foreign exchange reserves, implying significant transfer and convertibility risk
  • High public and external debt levels
  • A generally weak business environment

Trade structure by destination/origin

(% of total, 2020)

Exports Rank Imports
China 14.5%
1
15.4% China
Poland 6.7%
2
9.9% Germany
Russia 5.5%
3
8.5% Russia
Turkey 4.9%
4
7.6% Poland
Germany 4.2%
5
5.5% United States

Trade structure by product

(% of total, 2020)

Exports Rank Imports
Cereals and cereal preparations 19.8%
1
9.6% Road vehicles
Iron and steel 16.7%
2
7.6% Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials
Fixed vegetable oils and fats, crude, refined or fractionated 11.5%
3
6.9% Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, n.e.s.
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap 10.0%
4
4.9% Medicinal and pharmaceutical products
Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, n.e.s. 4.8%
5
4.4% Other industrial machinery and parts
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